Abarim Publications' online Biblical Hebrew Dictionary
The root-verb עשן ('sn) isn't used in the Bible, but it may have to do with an Arabic verb that means to rise. Its extant derivatives are:
- The noun עשן ('ashan), meaning smoke. Contrary to the verb קטר (qatar I), which is used to describe the production of pleasing smoke (from incense or a burned offering), our noun עשן ('ashan) primarily conveys anger. It heralds the destruction of a burning town (Joshua 8:20, Judges 20:38), an approaching foe (Isaiah 14:31), wickedness (Isaiah 9:18), even the breath of Job's Leviathan (Job 41:12). It signifies transitoriness (Psalm 102:3, Hosea 13:5) and unpleasantness (Proverbs 10:26). Our noun is also frequently applied in theophanies, mostly as a device to instill due reverence (Genesis 15:17, Exodus 19:18, 2 Samuel 22:9, also see Song of Solomon 3:6).
- The denominative verb עשן ('ashan), meaning to smoke (Exodus 19:18) or be angry (Psalm 80:4).
- The adjective עשן ('ashen), meaning smoking (Exodus 20:18, Isaiah 7:4).