Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The adverb of time αρτι (arti) means just or exactly. In the New Testament it's mostly used in reference to time, in which case it means "now". It frequently occurs combined with the preposition απο (apo), meaning from, to form an idiom that literally means from-exactly or from-now. This may imply a departure from a specified point or reference: "on the contrary" or "rather unlike", or it may imply a condition cemented now and perpetuated: "from now on", "henceforth". Our adverb occurs 37 times, see full concordance and from it derive:
- Together with the adjective γεννητος (gennetos), meaning born or brought fort: the adjective αρτιγεννητος (artigennetos), meaning new-born (1 Peter 2:2 only).
- The adjective αρτιος (artios), meaning exactly right, perfectly suited (2 Timothy 3:17 only).
The noun αρτος (artos) means bread. It's a common word, it occurs 98 times in the New Testament — see full concordance — and corresponds to the Hebrew word לחם (lehem); hence Beth-lehem or House of Bread.
It's not clear where this Greek word for bread comes from, but it looks suspiciously like our adverb αρτι (arti), meaning now, which suggests that bread was deemed a kind of old-world fast-food, or perhaps such a complete meal that it was known as "precisely-right".
Its obvious proximity to the next word, the verb αρτυω (artuo), meaning to fix precisely right, suggests additionally the crucially important roll the invention of bread had on the evolution of man's society. The familiar saying of Jesus that "one shall not live on bread alone but on every word that proceeds from the mouth of God" (Matthew 4:4) also portraits bread as a marvel of skill and technology. Folks often misplace the emphases in this verse; it's: ... not on bread alone, but on every word ... Bread-making, like all other wisdom, is a blessing straight from God (Colossians 2:3).
The verb αρτυω (artuo) means to arrange or prepare, with the implication of this requiring skill and cunning: to fix just right, to arrange in perfect order. This verb was often used to describe the agreeableness of a meal. In the New Testament it occurs in Mark 9:50, Luke 14:34 and Colossians 4:6 only.
Note the similarity between this verb and the noun αρτος (artos), meaning bread. The making of bread is of course a delicate matter and a highly appreciated skill — hence Pharaoh's need for a personal baker; Genesis 40:1 — and ever since its invention, bread has remained one of the most popular meals in the world.