Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The noun εκατον (hekaton) is the cardinal number one hundred (Matthew 18:12, John 19:39), which may also be used as adverb in the sense of a hundredfold (Matthew 13:8 and Mark 4:8).
Where this word comes from is not wholly clear, but it was applied with mathematical rigor as well as "loosely for very many" in the words of Liddell and Scott's An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, which draws the attention to the adjective εκαστος (ekastos), meaning each or every one.
Our cardinal number is incorporated into the following compounds:
- Together with the adverb δις (dis), which comes from the cardinal number δυο (duo), meaning two, and which means twice: the cardinal number διακοσιοι (diakosioi), meaning two hundred (Mark 6:37, John 6:7, Acts 23:23).
- Together with the noun ετος (etos), meaning year: the adjective εκατονταετης (hekatontaetes), meaning of a hundred years, or a hundred years old (Romans 4:19 only).
- Together with the numeral extension plasion, meaning -fold: the adjective εκατονταπλασιων (hekatontaplasion), meaning a hundredfold (Matthew 19:29, Mark 10:30, Luke 8:8).
- Together with the verb αρχω (archo), meaning to rule or command: the nouns εκατονταρχης (hekatontarches) and εκατονταρχος (hekatontarchos), meaning centurion or commander of a hundred (Matthew 8:5, Luke 7:2, Acts 10:1).
- Together with the cardinal number εξ (hex), meaning six: the cardinal number εξακοσιοι (hexakosioi), meaning six hundred (Revelation 14:20 only).
- Together with the cardinal number πεντε (pente), meaning five: the cardinal number πεντακοσιοι (pentakosioi), meaning five hundred (Luke 7:41 and 1 Corinthians 15:6 only).
- Together with the cardinal number τετρα (tetra), meaning four: the cardinal number τετρακοσιοι (tetrakosioi), meaning four hundred (Acts 5:36, Galatians 3:17).
- Together with the cardinal number τρεις (treis), meaning three: the cardinal number τριακοσιοι (triakosioi), meaning three hundred (Mark 14:5, John 12:5).