Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The ubiquitous particle παρα (para) expresses immediate vicinity or proximity. Its usages occur in the following categories:
- With the genitive and applied to a person, indicating that something proceeds from that person (Matthew 21:42, Mark 8:11, Luke 2:1).
- With the dative, and again nearly always applied to persons, indicating nearness in space (Matthew 21:25, 1 Corinthians 16:2, 2 Peter 2:11).
- With the accusative, resulting in answering questions like: where? where from? (Matthew 4:18, Mark 2:13, Luke 8:5). It may result in a statement of comparison: more than (Romans 14:5), almost (Luke 5:7), or causality: because of (1 Corinthians 12:15), or adversative: contrary to (Romans 16:17), or subtracting: less (2 Corinthians 11:24)
Combined with nouns and verbs, this particle occurs as prefix in an enormous list of compound words. Note that the familiar noun παραδεισος (paradeisos), meaning paradise, isn't constructed from our particle para but is a Persian loan-word.