Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The familiar adjective πολυς (polus), means much or many (Matthew 8:16, Mark 5:24, Luke 7:21, John 6:2), or great or intense (Matthew 2:18, John 7:12, Acts 15:7), and is the source of the many "poly-" words in English.
Our word often used to describe many people; the Anglicized phrase "hoi polloi", meaning the masses or the rabble, is directly adopted from Greek (Romans 5:15). And this appears to suggest relations between our word πολυς (polus) and the evenly familiar noun πολις (polis), meaning city.
From this adjective derive:
- Together with πας (pas), meaning all or whole: the adjective παμπολυς (pampolus), meaning very much, vast (Mark 8:1 only)
- Together with the suffix -κις (-kis), which denotes frequent occurrence: the adverb πολλακις (pollakis), meaning often or many times (Matthew 17:15, Romans 1:13, Hebrews 6:7).
- The adjective πολλαπλασιον (pollaplasion), meaning many times more (Luke 18:30 only).
- Together with the noun λογος (logos), meaning word: the noun πολυλογια (polulogia), denoting the use of many words, long-windedness (Matthew 6:7 only)
- Together with the noun μερος (meros), meaning a part or side: the adverb πολυμερος (polumeros; hence our English word "polymer"), meaning of many parts or many angles (Hebrews 1:1 only).
- Together with the adjective ποικιλος (poikilos), meaning varied: the adjective πολυποικιλος (polupoikilos), meaning greatly varied (Ephesians 3:10).
- Together with the noun σπλαγχνον (splagchnon), meaning (upper) intestines and figuratively the heart and emotions: the adjective πολυσπλαγχνος (polusplagchnos), or big-heartedness: very compassionate (James 5:11 only).
- Together with τελος (telos), meaning end or completion, or in this case, cost: the adjective πολυτελης (poluteles), meaning very costly (Mark 14:3, 1 Timothy 2:9, 1 Peter 3:4 only).
- Together with the noun τιμη (time), meaning worth or dearness: the adjective πολυτιμος (polutimos) meaning of great honor or price; very valuable (Matthew 13:46, John 12:3).
- Together with the noun τροπος (tropos), meaning manner, way or mode: the adverb πολυτροπως (polutropos), meaning in many ways or polymodal (Hebrews 1:1 only).
The adjective πλειων (pleion), also spelled πλειον (pleion) and πλεον (pleon), is the comparative of πολυς (polus) and means more. It is used pretty much in the same way as the English word "more" (Matthew 21:36, Acts 19:32, Hebrews 3:3).
Note the similarity with the verb πλεω (pleo), meaning to sail, which shares its root with the Latin pleo (hence our word "plenty"), which means to fill (which is what one does with ships). It's also the source of the name Pleiades, or the constellation of the Seven Sisters (see Exodus 2:16 and Isaiah 4:1).
It comes with the following derivations:
- The verb πλεοναζω (pleonazo), meaning to have more, to have surplus, to abound (Romans 5:20, 2 Corinthians 8:15, 2 Peter 1:8). This verb is the source of our English word "pleonasm". From this verb in turn derives:
- Together with the preposition υπερ (huper), meaning over or beyond: the verb υπερπλεοναζω (huperpleonazo), meaning to super-abound (1 Timothy 1:14 only).
- Together with the verb εχω (echo), meaning to have: the verb πλεονεκτεω (pleonekteo), literally to more-have; to covet or to harvest the resources of someone else out of sheer greed, to take advantage of. This verb occurs four times in 2 Corinthians (2:11, 7:2, 12:17-18) and once in 1 Thessalonians 4:6. From this verb comes:
- The noun πλεονεκτης (pleonektes), denoting a covetous person, an advantage taker (1 Corinthians 5:10-11, 6:10, Ephesians 5:5 only).
- Closely related to the previous and consisting of the same elements: the noun πλεονεξια (pleonexia), meaning covetousness or greediness (Luke 12:15, Romans 1:29, Ephesians 4:19).
The adjective πλειστος (pleistos) is the superlative of πολυς (polus) and means most (Matthew 11:20, 21:8 and 1 Corinthians 14:27 only). It has no derivatives.