Abarim Publications' online Biblical Hebrew Dictionary
The verb מדד (madad) means to measure. This verb commonly refers to establishing length or distance, but on occasion it is used figuratively. God sizes up the nations for judgment (Habakkuk 3:6), or measures out land for folks to live in (Psalm 60:6). Some sizes or quantities go beyond the scope of man but not that of God, such as that of the ocean (Isaiah 40:12) or all the descendants of Abraham (Hosea 1:10).
The derivatives of this verb are:
- The masculine noun מד (mad) meaning measure or portion (Jeremiah 13:25), or a "stretch" of cloth to sit on (Judges 5:10) or even to wear (Leviticus 6:3, Judges 3:16, 1 Samuel 17:38).
- The feminine equivalent מדה (midda), also meaning measurement (Ezekiel 41:17), or a certain length of cloth (Exodus 26:2) or garment (Psalm 133:2). An identical noun מדה (midda) occurs in Nehemiah 5:4. This particular word is assumed to be an Akkadian loan-word, meaning tribute.
- The masculine noun ממד (memad), meaning measurement. This noun occurs only in Job 38:5.
- The masculine noun מדון (madon), meaning stature. This noun occurs only in 2 Samuel 20:21. Note that it is identical to the noun מדון (madon) meaning strife or contention, from the root דין (dyn), meaning to judge.
The assumed root מדה (mdh) is a by-form of מדד (madad), and yields the masculine nouns מדו (maddu) and מדוה (madweh), both meaning garment. These words occur in 2 Samuel 10:4 and 1 Chronicles 19:4. Note that the noun מדוה (madweh) meaning garment is identical to the noun מדוה (madweh), meaning disease, from the verb דוה (dawa), meaning to be ill.