Abarim Publications' online Biblical Hebrew Dictionary
The verb קטן (qaton) means to be small or insignificant, "diminutiveness in quantity or quality," says HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. It's used for smallness in size, very often in contrast with something else that's typically bigger (1 Kings 12:10, Deuteronomy 25:13). It's used as smallness in years, meaning young or younger (Genesis 42:15, 1 Samuel 17:14). And it may denote weakness or less importance (Genesis 48:19, 1 Samuel 15:17, Isaiah 60:22).
HAW lists two adjectives and one noun that are derived from this verb, all spelled similar to the verb and two of them pronounced only slightly different:
- The adjective קטן (qatan), meaning young, insignificant (Genesis 9:24, Jeremiah 6:13).
- The adjective קטן (qaton), meaning small, insignificant (1 Samuel 2:19, Exodus 18:22).
- The noun קטן (qeton), meaning little finger (1 Kings 12:10).