🔼The name Ashteroth-karnaim in the Bible
The name Ashteroth-karnaim occurs only once in the Bible, although some scholars assume that it is the same as the place simply called Ashtaroth. The city specifically Ashteroth-karnaim was the hometown of the gargantuan Rephaim, who were defeated by kings Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer and Tidal in the War of Four Against Five Kings (Genesis 14:5). Ashtaroth and Ashteroth-karnaim were probably the same place because king Og of Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth, was the last of the Rephaim (Joshua 13:12).
🔼Etymology of the name Ashteroth-karnaim
The name Ashteroth-karnaim obviously consists of two elements, the first one being Ashtaroth, which is the plural form of Ashtoreth. The etymology and meaning of Ashtoreth are a bit complicated; please see our article on that name for more details.
The second part of our name is the same as the name Karnaim, which is a dual or plural noun derived from the root-verb קרן, meaning either to be horned or else to radiate:
The name Ashteroth-karnaim literally means Ashtaroth Of The Horns. Alfred Jones (Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names) believes that the horns actually refer to the new moon, and translates our name with Ashtaroth Of Horns and Ashtaroth Of The Crescent Moon. NOBSE Study Bible Name List assumes that the horns are mountains and reads Twin Peaks Near Ashtaroth. BDB Theological Dictionary, as usual, stays clear from interpreting our name, but does refer to one G. F. Moore who translated it with Ashtereth Of The Two Peaked Mountain.