Rephidim is a place where Israel camped and defeated the Amalekites (Exodus 17:8). Moses strikes a rock so that it gives water. He does the same thing again at Meribah, but in anger. Hence he only gets to view the Promised Land from Mount Abarim, but he is not allowed to enter.
The name Rephidim comes from the verb (rapad) meaning to spread. It's not a verb that's used very often. It occurs in Job 41:22, where a crocodile spreads a mark on the mud, and 17:13 where the author spreads his bed in Sheol. The derivative (repida) means support (Song 3:10).
The name Rephidim means Spreadings or Supports.
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