Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The verb βοσκω (bosko) means to [put out to] feed or graze, and specifically of herds and cattle. The derived noun βοσκος (boskos) is a relatively uncommon word for herdsman and unused in the New Testament (in Matthew 8:33, Mark 5:14 and Luke 8:34, pig herders are indicated by a participle of our verb). The more common word for shepherd is ποιμην (poimen).
Our verb βοσκω (bosko) stems from the Proto-Indo-European root "geh-", to feed, but is also reminiscent of the noun βους (bous), meaning ox or cattle, and the apparently unrelated Proto-Indo-European root "buH-", to grow, from which English gets its noun bush (and Dutch the equivalent bos).
- The noun βοτανη (botane), meaning pasture or pasturage; the vegetation that grazers eat (Hebrews 6:7 only). This word could also be used to refer to dry fodder, or herbs for human consumption, or even plants to turn into material to make clothes. This noun is the source of our English word botany, or the study of plants. The related noun βοτανη (botane) described a pasture. Noun βοτον (boton) describes a grazer or grazing beast. Noun βοτηρ (boter), describes a "pasturer"; yet another word for herdsman. None of these latter words occur in the New Testament.
The noun βοτρυς (botrus) describes a cluster of grapes (Revelation 14:18 only). One would expect this word to fit right into the above, but the experts have deemed it of non-Greek origin, and perhaps even Semitic. The Hebrew noun בסר (boser) describes a comparable fruit, although it derives from the verb בסר (basar), to be early, and rather describes a sour or unripe grape or date (Job 15:33, Isaiah 18:5, Ezekiel 18:2): "Everyone will die for his own iniquity; each man who eats the sour grapes, his teeth will be set on edge" (Jeremiah 31:29-30).
The noun συκον (sukon) means fig, whose tree is related to the μορον (moron), the proverbially dim berry, which came to symbolize intellectual primitivity and immaturity. The Hebrew word for the first ripe fig, namely בכורה (bikkura), derives from the verb בכר (bakar), meaning to rise early.
The Hebrew for cluster is אשכול ('eshkol), hence the Valley of Eshcol (Numbers 13:23).