Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The adverb αυριον (aurion) means tomorrow, on the morrow or morning, and may occasionally be used figuratively to mean soon or shortly. It stems from the widely attested Proto-Indo-European root "hews-", which means dawn or east, from which also comes the name Eos (of the deified rosy-fingered Dawn) and the Latin ausum, hence English words like austral (literally: toward the dawn but used in the curious sense of from the south), and names like Australia (southland), and Austria (eastern land or land of dawn), and aurum, meaning gold, and hence the familiar words aura, aureole and auriferous. Another word for dawn is αυγη (auge), which emphasizes the rising of the sun and the increasing of the light; hence the name Augustus.
The link between gold and dawn possibly comes with the similarity in color of gold and the morning sun, but more likely because gold represents wisdom and thus light — see our articles on שחר (shahar), meaning dawn (as used in Isaiah 8:20: they have no "dawn"), and χρυσος (chrusos), meaning gold. The red-glowing (rosy-fingered, from ροδον, rhodon, rose, see the name Rhoda) of the horizon before the release of bright yellow light was (probably) referred to as μωρος (moros), literally dim-witted, from which comes the ever handy word moron. Redness in turn relates to χαλκος (chalkos), bronze.
Our adverb αυριον (aurion), dawn or "at the beginning of enlightenment", is used 15 times; see full concordance. From it derives:
- Together with the preposition επι (epi) meaning on or upon: the adverb επαυριον (epaurion), literally upon the morning or at dawn, which obviously denotes the dawn of the next day, indicating that our adverb is commonly used to mean: the next day. It's used 17 times; see full concordance.
The noun αηρ (aer) means air. In Homer it denotes mist or haze; in later writers it describes earth's atmosphere (which was thought to extend to the moon), in which wind blows, and clouds drift. It stems from the rare verb αω (ao), to blow, which in turn comes from the same Proto-Indo-European root "hews-" that gave us the adverb αυριον (aurion), we discuss above. Our noun αηρ (aer) is not related to the verb αιρω (airo), to lift up, from which English indeed derives its word air.
Our noun αηρ (aer) describes the realm of ανεμος (anemos), wind, and νεφελη (nephele), cloud, but both these words were also used to describe elements of society and human psychology. Likewise, the familiar noun ψυχη (psuche), or psyche, comes from the verb ψυχω (psucho), which means to breathe in. The word πνευμα (pneuma), or spirit, comes from the verb πνεω (pneo), meaning to breathe out.
Our noun αηρ (aer), "air", is used 7 times; see full concordance.