Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
Where this word comes from is not wholly clear, but it was applied with mathematical rigor as well as "loosely for very many" in the words of Liddell and Scott's An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, which draws the attention to the adjective εκαστος (ekastos), meaning each or every one.
Our cardinal number occurs 17 times in the New Testament, see full concordance, and is also incorporated in the following compounds:
- Together with the adverb δις (dis), which comes from the cardinal number δυο (duo), meaning two, and which means twice: the cardinal number διακοσιοι (diakosioi), meaning two hundred. This number occurs 8 times; see full concordance.
- Together with the noun ετος (etos), meaning year: the adjective εκατονταετης (hekatontaetes), meaning of a hundred years, or a hundred years old (Romans 4:19 only).
- Together with the numeral extension plasion, meaning -fold: the adjective εκατονταπλασιων (hekatontaplasion), meaning a hundredfold (Matthew 19:29, Mark 10:30, Luke 8:8 only).
- Together with the verb αρχω (archo), meaning to rule or command: the nouns εκατονταρχης (hekatontarches) and εκατονταρχος (hekatontarchos), meaning centurion or commander of a hundred. This number occurs 21 times; see full concordance.
- Together with the cardinal number εξ (hex), meaning six: the cardinal number εξακοσιοι (hexakosioi), meaning six hundred (Revelation 14:20 only).
- Together with the cardinal number πεντε (pente), meaning five: the cardinal number πεντακοσιοι (pentakosioi), meaning five hundred (Luke 7:41 and 1 Corinthians 15:6 only).
- Together with the cardinal number τετρα (tetra), meaning four: the cardinal number τετρακοσιοι (tetrakosioi), meaning four hundred. This number is used 4 times; see full concordance.
- Together with the cardinal number τρεις (treis), meaning three: the cardinal number τριακοσιοι (triakosioi), meaning three hundred (Mark 14:5 and John 12:5 only).