Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The familiar adjective μονος (monos) means alone, which is of course a horrible word since our human existence is one of interaction and the exchange of goods, services and ideas. From the words we speak to the technology we use our identity derives largely from the socio-organism we are part of. Convention, which is the agreement on methods of expression, allows people to link their minds like a radio telescope, which is why the word ιδιωτης (idiotes), meaning "in a category of their own" has its derogatory ring.
Long before the fall of man caused the whole of creation to go awry, the Creator noted that there was something "not good" about his paradisiacal creation: It's not good that the man is alone (Genesis 2:18). And so he created Woman, which improved things right along. This Woman, of course, was Eve, who was the "mother of all life" (Genesis 3:20) and the word for mother (אמ, 'am) also means people or society, which is why Eve is the biosphere and not some naked lady of old.
The story that follows the account of Adam and Eve progresses along a complexity axis rather than a temporal one, and in Noah the animal-human symmetry breaks (for the most part; Psalm 73:22, Ecclesiastes 3:18, 2 Peter 2:12, Jude 1:10). Arch-father Abraham is not only the father of all believers, he's also the embodiment of international trade. His final descendant, Jesus, embodies the Word, which is the whole of natural law upon which the whole of creation operates (Colossians 1:16-17). This sounds rather boring but the embodiment of the Logos is as alive and aware and the embodiment of your own DNA (and then some). A humanity that is the embodiment of the Logos of creation is first of all a precise reflection of the Creator (Hebrews 1:2-3), and secondly governed by nothing but divine freedom (Revelation 21:22-23).
Also note that our word μονος (monos) has to do with our word "monarch" and that the Latin equivalent, namely solo has to do with the word for sun: sol. The Greek word for sun is ηλιος (helios), and when we truncate that we get Ηλ (El), or אל ('el), the Hebrew word for God. In our article on the Greek word κεφαλη (kephale), meaning head or skull, we note that the head is the seat of one's attention and as mobile as the moon. One's most intimate convictions, on the other hand, comprise one's sun, and other people are like the stars. The Hebrew equivalent of κεφαλη (kephale) is גלגלת (gulgoleth), hence the name Golgotha.
Our adjective μονος (monos) is used 45 times in the New Testament, see full concordance, and from it stem:
- Together with the preposition κατα (kata), meaning down from, down upon: the adverb καταμονας (katamonas), meaning "down to oneself-ly" or solitarily with the implication of being recently separated from the group. This adverb occurs in Mark 4:10 and Luke 9:18 only. A much more common adverb of solitude is μονον (monon); see below.
- Together with the important verb γινομαι (ginomai), meaning to be or begin to be: the adjective μονογενης (monogenes), meaning unique, one of a kind. This word is famously ascribed to Jesus but he's not the only one. For a closer look at this word, follow the link to the verb γινομαι (ginomai). This adjective occurs 9 times in the New Testament; see full concordance.
- The adverb μονον (monon), meaning only. It's used 67 times; see full concordance.
- Together with the noun οφθαλμος (ophthalmos), meaning eye: the adjective μονοφθαλμος (monophthalmos), meaning one-eyed (Matthew 18:9 and Mark 9:47 only).
- The verb μονοω (monoo), meaning to isolate or to make to be alone (1 Timothy 5:5 only).