Abarim Publications' online Biblical Hebrew Dictionary
The two root-verbs יפע (yapa') and יפה (yapa) may or may not be etymologically related, but their meanings obviously overlap:
The root-verb יפע (yapa') means to shine or radiate and appears to be reserved for the radiant element of theophanic displays (Deuteronomy 33:2, Job 10:3, Psalm 50:1).
But curiously, this verb's sole derivative, the feminine noun יפעה (yip'a), meaning brightness or splendor, is applied to the king of Tyre (Ezekiel 28:7 and 17 only).
The root-verb יפה (yapa) means to be beautiful. It's used eight times in the Bible, mostly to describe the outward beauty of women (Song of Solomon 7:7, Ezekiel 16:3, Jeremiah 4:30).
Our verb comes with the following derivatives:
- The adjective יפה (yapeh), meaning beautiful. This word is applied to women (Genesis 12:14, 2 Samuel 13:1), but also to men (Genesis 39:6, 2 Samuel 14:25; ergo, the ridiculous distinction between pretty for women and handsome for men doesn't exist in Hebrew). Our word is also applied to cities (Psalm 48:2), trees (Jeremiah 11:16, Ezekiel 31:3), and the human singing voice (Ezekiel 33:32).
- The adjective יפה־פיה (yepeh-piya), which is a reduplicative form that results in a diminutive: pretty (Jeremiah 46:20 only).
- The masculine noun יפי (yepi), meaning beauty. This noun is again often applied to women (Isaiah 3:24, Esther 1:11), but also to the king of Judah (Isaiah 33:17), Zion (Psalm 50:2) and trees (Ezekiel 31:8). The prophet Ezekiel applies this noun lavishly to the king of Tyre (Ezekiel 28:7, 28:12, 28:17).