Abarim Publications' online Biblical Hebrew Dictionary
The Hebrew verb ארה ('arah), means to pluck or gather. This verb occurs a mere two times: Song of Solomon 5:1, "I have gathered my myrrh . . . ," and Psalm 80:12, " . . . so that all who pass that way pluck its fruit".
But the derivatives of this verb occur much more frequent:
- The masculine nouns ארי ('ari) and אריה ('aryeh) both mean lion. According to HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament 'these are two of seven words which are translated lion in the Old Testament. There is no demonstrable difference between the two.' Lions feature in the Bible as the proverbial ferocious animal (Judges 14:5, 1 Samuel 17:34, Proverbs 22:13), as metaphor for the destructive power of God (Isaiah 38:13, Lamentations 3:10), or enemies (Jeremiah 49:19, Joel 1:6, also see 1 Peter 5:8). Still, linguistically spoken, the Biblical lion is a creature that gathers. In the Bible, a lion is predominantly a gatherer of food to eat.
- A third derivation is the feminine noun אריה ('urya), manger or crib; the item around which animals gather to eat (horses: 1 Kings 4:26, or cattle in general 2 Chronicles 32:28).
Note that our verb ארה ('arah) appears to be related in form to the verb ארר ('arar), which originally meant to bind but came to mean to curse or to bind someone with a spell.