🔼The name Harosheth-hagoyim in the Bible
Harosheth-hagoyim was the home of general Sisera, who was killed by Jael during the war of Naphtali and Zebulun against Jabin, king of Hazor in Canaan (Judges 4:2). The lead players of this war on the side of Israel were the general Barak and the judge Deborah.
The name Harosheth-hagoyim occurs three times in the fourth chapter of Judges (Judges 4:2, 4:13 and 4:16) but it is not wholly sure whether Harosheth-hagoyim is actually a name in its entirety. The final part means "of the nations" or "of the gentiles" and contains the word-or-name Goiim, which means "nations" (see below).
Neither the Septuagint nor the Vulgate considered -hagoyim as part of the name Harosheth and translated it with words derived from εθνος (ethnos) and gens. The King James followed this custom and spoke of Harosheth of the Gentiles. Younger versions of the English Bible tend to speak of Harosheth-hagoyim or variations thereof.
For a possible link between Harosheth-hagoyim, the Nuragic civilization of Sardinia and Mary the Magdalene, see our article on the name Magdalene, and particularly the paragraph "The People of the Tower."
🔼Etymology of the name Harosheth-hagoyim
The name Harosheth-hagoyim obviously consists of two parts. The first part of our name is identical to the feminine noun חרשׁת (haroshet), meaning a carving, from the root group חרש (hrs):
The second part of our name is the plural form of the noun גוי (goy), meaning people or nation, from the root גוה (gwh):
The ha-part of the word hagoyim may be the definite article ה (meaning "the") but is more likely the identical particle of direction or relation: "of the" or rather "towards the", which is very common in names for locations.
The meaning of the name Harosheth-hagoyim can be found as any combination of the above. NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Carving Of The Nations, but equally valid would be Silence Of The Gentiles. Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Manufactory for Harosheth and "Of The Gentiles" for Hagoyim.