Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The important adjective αλλος (allos) means another in the sense of one more — the word for another of another kind is ετερος (heteros). Both these words are familiar to English speakers; the former is retained in dozens of words such as allogeneic (genetically dissimilar but of the same species), allometry (partial growth that's faster or slower than the rate at which the whole grows) or allopathy (the opposite of homeopathy).
In the New Testament our word may mean simply other, another, some other or alternative (Matthew 2:12, John 21:25, Acts 19:21), or a next one (not being the first; Mark 12:4, Revelation 12:3), or more than just mentioned; other ones (John 20:30). On occasion our word comes with the definite article, in which case it denotes some specified other or only other (Matthew 5:39), the remaining one (Revelation 17:10), or the elements of a predetermined set that were not those just reviewed (John 21:8).
Our adjective αλλος (allos) occurs 159 times in the New Testament, see full concordance, comes with a handful of true derivatives and is part of several compound words:
- The conjunction αλλα (alla), which originated as the neuter plural of αλλος (allos) and which usually can be translated with "but". It occurs 639 times in the New Testament, see full concordance, and serves to denote antithesis or reconsideration (John 5:18, Romans 3:27), objection (Romans 10:18), correction (Mark 14:36), even incitement (Matthew 9:18) or mere transition without antithesis (John 16:7). Frequently our word merely expresses continuation of some discourse, or a slight alteration in tone or topic (Mark 13:24, Galatians 2:14, Philippians 3:8). When our word is followed by a vowel, its final α (a) falls out (Matthew 4:4, Romans 1:21, 1 Thessalonians 5:9).
- The verb αλλασσω (allasso), also occurring as αλλαττω (allatto), meaning to "otherize", to either exchange one thing for another (Romans 1:23), to change the character but not the essence of something (a voice: Galatians 4:20; the interpretation of law: Acts 6:14), or to transform (1 Corinthians 15:51, Hebrews 1:10). Note the significance of the use of our root word in the latter regard: at the resurrection we will receive a second but essentially similar body (still, also see 1 Corinthians 15:44). This verb is used 6 times, see full concordance, and comes with its own derivatives:
- Together with the preposition απο (apo), meaning from: the verb απαλλασσω (apallasso) or απαλλαττω (apallatto), literally meaning to otherize out of, or away from; to break out of some specified situation or condition, like bondage, a prison or the imminence of being dragged off to prison (Luke 12:58, Acts 19:12 and Hebrews 2:15 only).
- Together with the prefix δια (dia), meaning through or throughout: the beautiful verb διαλλασσομαι (dialassomai) or διαλλαττομαι (dialattomai), literally meaning to otherize through. It occurs only in Matthew 5:24 and is commonly translated with to reconcile. It denotes, however, a profound internal change, not merely a consolatory cessation of hostilities.
- Together with the preposition κατα (kata), meaning down from, down upon: the equally magnificent verb καταλλασσω (katallasso) or καταλλαττω (katallatto), which does the same thing as the previous verb except that it describes an external change: a "de-otherization" toward someone else. It describes how God's people are "de-otherized" to him through Jesus (Romans 5:10, 2 Corinthians 5:18-20), or, closely similar, how a wife is "de-otherized" to her husband to resume their "one-flesh" state of marital union (1 Corinthians 7:11). This verb is used 6 times, see full concordance, and from it in turn derive:
- Again together with the preposition απο (apo), meaning from: the verb αποκαταλλασσω (apokatalasso) or αποκαταλλαττω (apokatalatto), meaning to "de-otherize" out of a specified condition or situation, or by specified means: to "out-de-otherize" or "via-de-otherize" (Ephesians 2:16, Colossians 1:20 and 1:21 only).
- The noun καταλλαγη (katallage), meaning reconciliation; either the act of the verb or the result of it. This noun occurs 4 times; see full concordance.
- Together with the preposition μετα (meta), meaning in the middle: the verb μεταλλασσω (metalasso) or μεταλλαττω (metalatto), meaning to change from one intimacy to another (Romans 1:25 and 1:26 only).
- Together with the preposition παρα (para), meaning near or nearby: the verb παραλλασσω (paralasso), meaning to cause to alternate, to change, to deviate or change direction. This verb isn't used in the New Testament but from it comes:
- The noun παραλλαγη (parallage), meaning a change of position, a movement or shift in appearance (James 1:17 only). This noun was also an astrological term, meaning "passing beyond". The related word παραλλαξις (parallaxis), or parallax, describes the difference in apparent position (or position relative to its background) of an object that is viewed from different lines of sight. This noun's parent verb, παραλλασσω (paralasso), also means to display a parallax.
- Suffixed with the adverb of motion -θεν (-then), meaning "from a place" (comparable to the English "-ian"): the adverb αλλαχοθεν (allachothen), meaning from somewhere else (John 10:1 only). This word survives in English as allochthon, the opposite of autochthon or indigenous.
- Together with the verb αγορευω (agoreuo), meaning to speak publicly: the verb αλληγορεω (allegoreo), meaning to say the same thing in another way (Galatians 4:24 only). From this verb stems our English word "allegory".
- The reciprocal pronoun αλληλων (allelon), meaning "one another". This word occurs 99 times; see full concordance.
- Together with the noun γενος (genos), meaning offspring or familial stock: the adjective αλλογενης (allogenes), meaning from another family or race; a foreigner or stranger (Luke 17:18 only).
- The adjective αλλοτριος (allotrios), meaning belonging to another. This word may apply to other people's wares (Luke 16:12), other countries (Acts 7:6, Hebrews 11:9), or even describe something ominously undetermined, as Paul writes that the prophets made armies out of the support of "the things of others" (Hebrews 11:34). This adjective occurs 14 times see full concordance and from it in turn derives:
- Together with the noun επισκοπος (episkopos), literally meaning watcher-over, a word used for public overseers: the comical noun αλλοτριοεπισκοπος (allotrioepiskopos): a watcher-over of someone else's things; someone meddlesome and occupied with affairs that are none of his business, who sticks his nose where it doesn't belong, a nosy parker (1 Peter 4:15 only).
- Together with the noun φυλη (phule), meaning race or tribe: the adjective αλλοφυλος (allophulos), meaning "other-tribely" (Acts 10:28 only).
- The adverb αλλως (allos), meaning otherwise or alternatively (1 Timothy 5:25 only). Note the important difference between this word and ετερως (heteros), which occurs only in Philippians 3:15 and denotes a wholly different essence. Out word describes being alternatively but similarly. Paul in 1 Timothy 5:25 does not speak of deeds that are other-than-good and thus evil, but deeds that are other good deeds. He continues the pattern set in the previous verse: some bad deeds are immediately obvious, whereas other bad deeds are eventually found out about via inquest. Likewise, some good deeds are immediately obvious, while other good deeds will not be evident until the books are opened (Revelation 20:12).