🔼The name Dodanim in the Bible
The name Dodanim occurs only once in the Bible. They are mentioned among the descendants of Javan, son of Japheth, son of Noah (Genesis 10:4). In the parallel text of 1 Chronicles 1:7, the Dodanim are called Rodanim, spelled רודנים.
Some scholars believe that the Chronicler made an error and read a Hebrew ר (resh) for the somewhat similar ד (daleth — which would be comparable to a professional writer today speaking of Oatar instead of Qatar; rather unlikely), and threw an additional ו (waw) in for good measure.
Another possibility is that the Dodanim of old were known as Rodanim in the Chronicler's days. It's even possible that by speaking of Rodanim, the Chronicler indicates that his text is not a copy of but rather a commentary on the established text (comparable to a writer today speaking lamely of Oilar instead of Qatar).
🔼Etymology of the name Dodanim
The name Dodanim appears to be a plural form of a name similar to Dedan, and is closely similar to the name Dedanim. The Dedanim, however, are either descendants of Japheth's brother Ham (Genesis 10:7) or else Jokshan, a son of Abraham and a distant descendant of Japheth's other brother Shem (Genesis 25:3).
It's not immediately clear where the name Dodanim may have come from, but to a Hebrew audience it would have looked related to the following root group:
For a meaning of the name Dodanim, Alfred Jones (Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names) reads Leaders. Neither BDB Theological Dictionary nor NOBSE Study Bible Name List attempt to interpret this name.