🔼The name Iddo in the Bible
There are a whopping six different Hebrew names that all made it into the English version of the Bible as Iddo. Strangely enough, both the Septuagint and the Vulgate managed to transliterate these four or five different Hebrew names to three different Greek and Latin names.
We'll call the different Iddos: Iddo I (אדו), Iddo II (ידו), Iddo III (יעדי) and Iddo IV (עדו).
Also note that the New Testament name Addi is probably a transliteration of one of the versions of the name Iddo.
🔼The name Iddo I in the Bible
There's only one man in the Bible with the name Iddo I (אדו; for some reason, the Septuagint completely omits this name, but the Vulgate calls him Eddo). He is a leading man in Casiphia, and Ezra the Reformer sends him a small delegation of men in order to ask for Levite priests to serve in the temple (Ezra 8:17). Iddo promptly sends him 258 Levites.
🔼Etymology of the name Iddo I
The etymology and meaning of this version of the name Iddo is not clear, although both BDB Theological Dictionary and Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names link it to an assumed root אדד. Both sources link this unknown Hebrew root to the same Arabic noun, but Jones says it came from a verb that means to befall (as misfortune), whereas BDB states it means strength.
Then this name may also be an Aramaic version of the name Hiddai, or perhaps even related to the Aramaic divine name Hadad, which (says BDB) was also known as Addu. BDB doesn't submit the Aramaic spelling of Addu, but it wouldn't be far off from our name Iddo.
🔼Iddo I meaning
The meaning of this version of the name Iddo is irretrievably obscure. NOBSE Study Bible Name List doesn't bother with all the different versions of the name Iddo and reads Festal for all (for no perceivable reason). BDB Theological Dictionary doesn't translate this name and volunteers no information beyond the relation to the obscure root אדד. Alfred Jones sticks to his own understanding of the Arabic noun and translates our name Iddo with Great Calamity.
🔼The name Iddo II in the Bible
Since the name Iddo is really the English version of half a dozen different Hebrew forms, it's not wholly clear how many men exist in the Bible with the name Iddo II (ידו; the Septuagint reads Ιαδαι and the Vulgate reads Jaddo). Sources agree that 1 Chronicles 27:21 makes mention of an Iddo (ידו) who was a son of Zechariah and ruler of the half-tribe of Manasseh in Gilead.
Then, in some versions of the Hebrew Bible there's an Iddo (ידו) mentioned in Ezra 10:43 among the men who divorced their foreign wives, and sure enough, the American Standard Version prints the name Iddo there. Most older English translations (King James, Green, Webster) transliterate this particular version of ידו with Jadau, and most younger translations (NAS, NIV, Darby, KJV21) go with Hebrew texts that speak of ידי and transliterate this name with Jaddai.
But even if all this may seem a major controversy, it really isn't. The difference between ידי and ידו is minute and hardly essential, and in the end we have no idea to pronounce either one because there are no sound recordings available from Biblical times.
🔼Etymology of the name Iddo II
The name Iddo II appears to be derived from the Hebrew root-verb ידד (yadad), which either means to love, or it means to cast a lot:
The letter ו (waw) upon which our name ends may be the masculine pronominal suffix, meaning his.
🔼Iddo II meaning
For a meaning of this version of the name Iddo, Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Love Of Him. BDB Theological Dictionary does not offer a translation but agrees with Jones about the etymology and lists this version of Iddo under the root-verb ידד (yadad).
🔼The name Iddo III and IV in the Bible
The name יעדי (Iddo II; for some reason, the Septuagint calls this man Ιωηλ — which is Joel — but the Vulgate reads Addo) belongs to a famous Biblical prophet, who wrote his own book, which never made it into the canon and was lost forever (2 Chronicles 9:29). But apparently, the Book of Iddo contained acts of king Solomon, visions concerning king Jeroboam, the acts of king Rehoboam and the acts and words of king Abijah.
The name Iddo III should actually be pronounced as Yiddo or Yiddi (and in English Jiddo, with a J like Joseph and Jacob; names that also start with the letter י, yod), but this prophet is named such only once, in 2 Chronicles 9:29. In 2 Chronicles 12:15 and 13:22 he is called עדו (Iddo IV).
Other men named Iddo IV are:
- A Levite from the Gershom branch (1 Chronicles 6:21), who some take to be the same as the Adaiah mentioned in 1 Chronicles 6:41. There is, however, very little evidence for this.
- The grandfather of the prophet Zechariah, (Zechariah 1:1). In Zechariah 1:7 and Ezra 5:1 and 6:14 this man is called עדוא, which is basically the same name but post-fixed with a snazzy א (aleph). Perhaps this was done to give this name an Aramaic twist.
Other men named עדוא or עדא (Iddo IVb) are:
🔼Etymology of the name Iddo III and IV
These versions of the name Iddo possibly come from the root עדד, which probably has to do with time:
🔼Iddo III and IV meaning
For a meaning of these versions of Iddo, Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Time Of Him for Iddo III, and Timely for Iddo IV. BDB Theological Dictionary agrees with Jones on the etymology, lists these versions under the obscure root עדד, but offers no interpretation.