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Abarim Publications' Biblical Dictionary: The New Testament Greek word: ομος

Source: https://www.abarim-publications.com/DictionaryG/o/o-m-o-sfin.html

ομος

Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary

ομος

The familiar adjective ομος (homos) means same or of the same kind, and is the opposite of the pronoun ετερος (heteros), meaning other or "one of another kind". The latter word occurs much more often in the classics (our word ομος, homos does not occur at all in the New Testament), since "another of the same kind" is preferably described by the adjective αλλος (allos).

Our adjective ομος (homos) stems from the ancient proto-Indo-European root "sem-", from which we also get our English words same, seem, some, ensemble, facsimile, simple and single (and many more), and of course the many homo- words such as homogenous (of same class), homochromous (of the same color), homodont (having only the same teeth, as reptiles do), the infinitely useful homoscedastic (being of constant variety), and of course everybody's favorites: homophile (lover of same), homosexual (sexually activated by same), and the curiously misapplied homophobia (fear of same, i.e. the unreasonable fear of someone who is like you).

But, even though the adjective ομος (homos) is absent from the New Testament in its unbound state, it occurs as component in a formidable array of derivatives:

  • Together with the noun θυμοσ (thumos), mental agitation: the adverb ομοθυμαδον (homothumadon), meaning in a like-minded manner or with the same temper. This word occurs 12 times in the New Testament; see full concordance.
  • The adjective ομοιος (homoios), meaning similar to, comparable or same-natured. It describe alignment or lateral correspondence in usually abstract and uncountable qualities of nature or character (hence words like homoeogeneous, of similar class; homoeocrystalline, made of similarly sized crystals; homoeomorphic, of similar form), in the same way as the comparable adjective ισος (isos) describes alignment in countable and measurable qualities (hence English words like isobar, isolex and isotone). Hence this word is often used to tie a simile and its meaning together (to what can we "liken" this and that?; what might be "same-natured" as this and that?), and hence heralds many a parable (Matthew 13:31-52, Luke 7:32, Revelation 1:15). This is significant because the Creator has spoken in parables since the beginning of the world (Psalm 78:2), which is another way of saying that our word describes a natural creative principle (both the universe and the Bible are huge fractals, after all). Our adjective is, perhaps surprisingly, also the word that ties the two great commandments together, which means that (a) the commandment to love God, and (b) the commandment to love your neighbor, are not at all two entirely different commandments but much rather two very similar sides of the same coin, that are indeed so similar that they explain each other (Matthew 22:39, Mark 12:31). On occasion this word is used to describe a deceptive similarity: to be a seem-alike but thus quite different (John 8:55, 9:9). This handsome word is used 45 times in the New Testament, see full concordance and from it in turn derive:
    • The verb ομοιαζω (homoiazo), meaning to be similar to, resemble, to be same-natured with (Mark 14:70 only). From this verb in turn comes:
      • Together with the preposition παρα (para), meaning near or nearby: the verb παρομοιαζω (paromaiazo), meaning to be nearly similar to, to be almost same-natured with (Matthew 23:27 only).
    • Together with the noun παθος (pathos), an experience: the adjective ομοιοπαθης (homoiopathes), meaning similarly-passioned (Acts 14:15 and James 5:17 only).
    • The noun ομοιοτης (homoiotes), meaning likeness or similitude (Hebrews 4:15 and 7:15 only).
    • The verb ομοιοω (homoioo), meaning to correlate or compare in the sense of to point out the similarities of. In English the common translations of this verb tend to drag the narrative toward metaphorical fantasy (the moon was like a grapefruit and her heart a frosty anvil) but the Greek original seeks to point out the natural similarity, or even the self-similarity; the hardwired causative kinship between intrinsic natures (the moon was like a kite and her heart a pounding anchor). This suggests that Jesus' parables are not the fruits of poetic fancy but stem from the observation that certain natural principles appear within and govern seemingly separate situations that are in fact closely correlated instances of the same dynamics. This verb is used 15 times; see full concordance, and from it derive:
      • Together with the preposition απο (apo), meaning from or out of: The verb αφομοιοω (aphomoioo), to be made alike out of... ; i.e. out of, say, raw elements or an implied previous state of non-similarity. This verb is used in the classics to describe indeed the slowly becoming alike someone, but also the making of a copy of a painting. In the New Testament this verb occurs in Hebrews 7:3 only.
      • The noun ομοιωμα (homoioma), meaning a likeness, similitude or sameness. This noun occurs 6 times; see full concordance.
      • The noun ομοιωσις (homoiosis), also meaning likeness but in the sense of a being made alike. This word differs from the previous in that the suffix "-osis" implies a forming of action or condition after some original. Modern medicine uses this suffix to indicate a condition arising from some initial infection or defect. The only occurrence of this word in the New Testament is in James 3:9, which is commonly understood to speak of individual men being made into the image of God, but that's not at all certain (if not a tad ludicrous, actually; the phrase "image of God" is always applied to plural people, never single individuals). In fact, it appears that James rather speaks of a similarity of men (that comes from collective mastery in a common speech and scientific knowledge), which is in turn of divine nature and origin (see our article on the noun θηριον, therion, for a brief look at these principles).
    • The adverb ομοιως (homoios), meaning similarly, in a similar manner, likewise. This adverb is used 31 times; see full concordance.
    • Again together with the preposition παρα (para), near or nearby: the adjective παρομοιος (paromoios), meaning nearly alike, roughly similar, suchlike (Mark 7:8 and 7:13 only).
  • Together with the noun τεχνε (techne), meaning an art, skill or craft: the adjective ομοτεχνος (homotechnos), meaning of like-skill, craft-mate (Acts 18:3 only).
  • The adverb ομου (omou), meaning together at the same place, together as one (John 4:36, 20:4 and 21:2 only). From this adverb in turn derive:
    • Together with the otherwise unused noun ιλη (ile), troop, band or company: the noun ομιλος (homilos), meaning a spontaneous or single-minded crowd, a crowd that has assembled in one place (Revelation 18:17 only). From this noun derives:
      • The verb ομιλεω (homileo), literally meaning to crowd-talk: to talk within a crowd, to have many conversing people form a crowd. In Acts 24:26 we read how Felix used to get Paul from prison to crowd-talk with him, which implies that this didn't entail private sessions but rather that Felix released Paul to the crowd at the court. This verb occurs 4 times; see full concordance, and from it in turn come:
        • The noun ομιλια (homilia), which describes the conversation carried by a crowd (1 Corinthians 15:33 only). This is the source of our English word "homily", which describes a religious discourse, which is what our Greek original typically doesn't describe. The Greek word describes the rumorous clamor of many people arguing, without structure or guidance.
        • Together with the preposition συν (sun), together or with: the verb συνομιλεω (sunomileo), meaning to crowd-talk with, to partake in a crowd-talk. Contrary to the previous, this word implies structure and some degree of order (Acts 10:27 only).
    • Together with the verb λεγω (lego), to speak (intelligently): the verb ομολογεω (homologeo), meaning to speak in accordance with, to consent. This verb can be used to describe consent because one agrees with the addressed party (Matthew 10:32), or because one speaks in agreement with the truth (John 1:20) or one's convictions (Romans 10:10), or in concord with the nature or behavior of the addressed (Matthew 7:23), or one answers to the desire of the addressed, in which case our verb can be translated with to promise (Matthew 14:7). This verb is used 24 times in the New Testament; see full concordance, and from it in turn come:
      • Together with the preposition αντι (anti), meaning over or against: the verb ανθομολογεομαι (anthomologeomai), meaning to reply in accordance with, to agree with someone in response to their agreement with you. This verb is used in the classics to describe the achievement of a mutual agreement or the making of a mutually agreed covenant, or to agree along with a group of people who are already agreeing (Luke 2:38 only).
      • Together with the preposition εκ (ek), meaning out or from: the verb εξομολογεω (exomologeo), meaning to speak in accordance with, out of something that just occurred. This verb is used 10 times; see full concordance.
      • The noun ομολογια (homologia), meaning an act of speaking in accordance with, that is a statement in which one expresses agreement or consent with an addressed party. This noun occurs 6 times; see full concordance.
      • The adverb ομολογουενως (homologoumenos), meaning in a manner that expresses according with; assentingly (1 Timothy 3:16 only).
  • Together with the noun φρην (phren), midriff as seat of passions and mental faculties: the adjective ομοφρων (homophron), meaning like-minded, of similar intellectual leaning (1 Peter 3:8 only).
  • The conjunction ομως (homos), an adversative particle meaning all-the-same, nevertheless, notwithstanding, still (John 12:42, 1 Corinthians 14:7 and Galatians 3:15 only).