Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
αυτος εαυτου ουτος
The familiar pronoun αυτος (autos) means "self", and can as such be applied to "(him)self", "(her)self" or "(it)self", and in plural: "(them)selves". As such it serves as the third person personal pronoun (he, him, his; she, her, hers, it and its, and in plural: they, their and theirs). Our word may on occasion also be applied to (my)self (Acts 10:26, Romans 7:25) or (your)self (Luke 6:42, Acts 21:24), although the first and second persons have their own specific sets of personal pronouns.
When one self and another self are equal, they are of the same self, which means that our word may also be used to express sameness (in which case it's usually preceded by the definite article). In Romans 10:12 our word majestically refers to the unique self-hood of the Lord: ...for the αυτος (autos) Lord is Lord of all.
This word, in all its forms, occurs a colossal 5761 times in the New Testament; see full concordance.
The genitive neutral singular form of αυτος (autos), namely αυτου (autou), may be used as an adverb of place: here, there. This usage occurs an additional 5 times; see full concordance.
The obviously related word εαυτου (heautou) is the third person reflexive pronoun, meaning of himself, herself or itself (and "themselves" in plural). Both these words yield a declined form αυτου (pronounced either autou or hautou, as is assumed, but note that at the time in which the New Testament was written, these words were in all ways identical).
This word occurs 333 times; see full concordance.
The rather similar demonstrative pronoun ουτος (houtos) means this or that. The derived adverbs ουτω (houto) and ουτως (outos) mean thus, in this manner. In plural and prefixed by the definite article τα (ta), our word ουτος (houtos) becomes ταυτα, meaning "these". This latter form is spelled the same as the word derived from αυτος (autos), also by prefixing it with τα (ta). This latter word also means "these", and although there is an obvious theoretical difference between these words spelled ταυτα and meaning "these", this theoretical difference may not have carried much weight in the practical arena. A combination of the definite article and our word αυτος (autos) often can be translated with "the same" (Matthew 5:46). Both preceded by επι (epi) forms a formula that means "together" or "gathered" (Matthew 22:34, Acts 1:15).
A word of identical meaning is the shape-shifting οδε (hode) or τηδε (tede) or ταδε (tade), and so on, which consist of the definite article plus the enclitic particle δε (de), and also means this or that one. Our pronoun ουτος probably comes from a reduplication of the article rather than a coupling with δε (de), but ultimately serves the same purpose.
The form αυτου (autou), which is the genitive neuter of our word αυτος (autos) would literally mean something like "of it", and is sometimes used in the sense of "here" or "there" (Matthew 26:26, Acts 18:19).
Our core word αυτος (autos) declines in all the expected ways and, as in English, also serves as element of a modest array of compounds:
- Together with the unused verb ηδομαι (hedomai), meaning to enjoy oneself, be amused or be glad, the adjective αυθαδης (authades), denoting someone who is or wants to be pleased with himself and not too much with others; someone who values his own pleasure (or general worth) over that of others (Titus 1:7 and 2 Peter 2:10 only).
- Together with the verb αιρεω (haireo), meaning to take or choose, the noun αυθαιρετος (authairetos), meaning voluntary or choosing on one's own accord (2 Corinthians 8:3 and 8:17 only).
- Together with the unused noun εντεα (entea), meaning gear or equipment (often for fighting: armor), the unused noun αυθεντης (authentes, hence our slightly askew word "authentic") is formed. In Greek it denotes someone who literally "takes matters into his own hand", and that mostly in order to kill someone, or at least exercise ultimate authority over that person. From this noun comes:
- The important verb αυθεντεω (authenteo), meaning to domineer or bully someone into submission (1 Timothy 2:12 only). Paul famously uses this verb to describe what he forbids women to do to men, which possibly has not so much to do with women and their curbed right to dispense their wisdoms, but more so with men and the natural resistance they display when someone, especially a women, tries to bludgeon them into a state of attention. Paul is not saying that women can't teach. He's saying that whereas men naturally engage other men in rivalry, women should use more subtle tactics of interaction.
- Together with the verb αρκεω (arkeo), meaning to suffice, the adjective αυταρκης (autarkes), meaning self-sufficient or adequate (Philippians 4:11 only). From this word derives:
- Together with the verb κατακρινω (katakrino), meaning to judge against or declare judgment against, the adjective αυτοκατακριτος (autokatakritos), literally meaning self-critical in the sense of self-condemning: pronouncing condemnation upon oneself (Titus 3:11 only).
- Together with a spawn from the same ancient Proto-Indo-European root that gave us the word "mind" (although the closest Greek verbs have to do with seeking diligently, and thus seeking idly and thus blabbering idly), the familiar word αυτοματος (automatos), literally meaning self-mindedness, or automatic(ally). The reader needs to remember that where our word "automatic" brings to mind a common mechanical device of some sort, in the first century AD there were far less such devices. Back then something automatic was something that undertook some kind of action but for reasons that were not directly obvious: it just happened, happened by itself or for self-evident or self-enclosed reasons: soil producing crop (Mark 4:28), or doors that open for self-contained reasons (Acts 12:10, which is a no-subtle reference to the "automatic" gates of Olympus, see Iliad 5.745-755). This word occurs only these two times in the New Testament.
- Together with the verb οπτομαι (optomai), meaning to see, the noun αυτοπτης (autoptes), denoting someone who himself has seen; an eye witness (Luke 1:2 only).
- Together with the noun χειρ (cheir), meaning hand, the adjective αυτοχειρ (autocheir), meaning "with one's own hand(s)" (Acts 27:19 only).
- Together with εμου (emou), meaning of me or mine, the reflexive first person pronoun εμαυτου (emautou), meaning of myself, to myself. This word occurs 37 times; see full concordance.
- Together with the preposition εκ (ek), meaning out or from, the feminine genitive singular, αυτης (autes), gives the adverb εξαυτης (exautes), meaning from this time, forthwith or immediately. This adverb is used 6 times; see full concordance.
- Together with the second person personal pronoun σε (se), meaning you or thee, the reflexive pronoun σεαυτου (seautou), meaning of thyself, or yourself. This word occurs 41 times; see full concordance.
- Together with the adjective φιλος (philos), meaning loved or dear, the adjective φιλαυτος (philautos), meaning self-loving (2 Timothy 3:2 only).
- Together with the adverb ως (hos), meaning as, so as, in the way which, the adverb ωσαυτως (hosautos), meaning likewise, in the same way. This word appears 18 times; see full concordance.