Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The verb τρεφω (trepho) means to nourish, feed or nurture. It appears to originally have denoted the congealing or curdling of a liquid, but came to denote a feeding or fostering (Matthew 6:26, 25:37, Acts 12:20, Revelation 12:6), then pampering and cherishing (James 5:5) and finally a leading toward maturity; the upbringing of a child (Luke 4:16).
Our verb comes with the following derivatives:
- Together with the preposition ανα (ana), meaning on or upon: the verb ανατρεφω (anatrepho), literally meaning to bring up by means of fostering (Acts 7:20-21) but also used in the sense of to educate (Acts 22:3).
- Together with the preposition εκ (ek), meaning out (used as intensive): the verb εκτρεφω (ektrepho), meaning to nurture (Ephesians 5:29) or train (Ephesians 6:4).
- Together with the preposition εν (en), meaning in, on, at, by: the verb εντρεφω (entrepho), meaning to bring up as or into something (1 Timothy 4:6 only).
- The noun θρεμμα (thremma), denoting domesticated cattle (John 4:12 only).
- Together with the noun τεκνον (teknon), meaning child: the verb τεκνοτροφεω (teknotropheo), meaning to bring up children (1 Timothy 5:10 only).
- The noun τροφη (trophe), a very common word meaning food or nourishment (Matthew 3:4, Luke 12:23, Acts 2:46). This word may be used figuratively, denoting food for the mind (Hebrews 5:12-14), and may even cover one's wage or stipend with which to procure food (Matthew 10:10, 1 Timothy 5:18).
- The noun τροφος (trophos) meaning a nourisher or nurse (1 Thessalonians 2:7 only).