Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The two most common words for man in the Greek New Testament are ανηρ (aner) and ανθρωπος (anthropos):
The ubiquitous masculine noun ανηρ (aner) means man in the sense of a male adult person (Matthew 14:21, Ephesians 4:13), or man as member of the human race (Mark 6:44, Luke 5:12). Our noun occurs 214 times in the New Testament, see full concordance, but mostly with the meaning of husband (John 1:13, 1 Corinthians 7:10, Ephesians 5:25).
The familiar noun ανδρος (andros) is a genitive (indicating possession or some other "of" relation) of the word ανηρ (aner), meaning man or husband. Derivations of ανηρ (aner) that use this genitive are:
- The masculine noun ανδραποδιστης (andrapodistes), meaning a man-stealer; a person who abducts men in order to make them slaves (1 Timothy 1:10 only).
- The verb ανδριζω (andrizo), meaning to behave manly, that is maturely or courageously (1 Corinthians 16:13 only).
- With the verb φονος (phonos), to murder: ανδροφονος (androphonos), meaning manslayer, or rather male-slayer (1 Timothy 1:9 only).
- With the common preposition υπο (hupo), meaning under, beneath or through: the adjective υπανδρος (hupandros), meaning "under a husband," or married (Romans 7:2 only).
- Together with the adjective φιλος (philos), meaning beloved or friend, the adjective φιλανδρος (philandros), meaning friendly toward man or husband (Titus 2:4 only).
The noun ανθρωπος (anthropos) denotes man as in mankind and is used in the Bible distinctively from both the realm of the divine and the more general word for man ανηρ (aner). Paul strikingly uses this word when he tells his arresting officer that he is not some rioter but human (Acts 21:39).
See for a short discussion on what makes a human and what makes a non-human, our article on the noun θηριον (theorion).
This noun ανθρωπος (anthropos) is used 559 times, see full concordance, and its derivations are:
- Together with the verb αρεσκω (aresko), meaning to fit or please: the adjective ανθρωπαρεκος (anthropareskos) meaning pleaser of man(kind) as opposed to a pleaser of God. This adjective occurs only twice in the New Testament, namely in Ephesians 6:6 and Colossians 3:22.
- The adjective ανθρωπινος (anthropinos), meaning human or belonging to mankind. This adjective is used 7 times; see full concordance.
- Together with the otherwise unused verb κτεινω (kteino), meaning to kill or slay: the noun ανθροποκτονος (anthropoktonos) meaning manslayer or rather human-slayer (John 8:44 and 1 John 3:15 only).
- Together with the adjective φιλος (philos), meaning beloved or friend, the familiar noun φιλανθρωπια (philanthropia), denoting love for mankind (Acts 28:2 and Titus 3:4 only), and its associated adverb φιλανθρωπως (philanthropos), meaning humanely (Acts 27:3 only).