🔼The name Elohim in the Bible
Elohim is one of three Divine Names by which the Creator is known as He creates. The creation account is probably the most difficult and most enigmatic passages in the Bible. It starts at the beginning and it doesn't really end.
There are three stages upon which the creation unfolds. The first stage stretches from Genesis 1:1 to 2:4. During this period God is known as Elohim. From Genesis 2:4 He is known as YHWH Elohim. The third stage starts around the Noah cycle and flows over into the Abraham cycle and beyond across the rest of the Bible. Abraham, after all, was the first to believe and became not only a new creation but also the first of a new continuum of new creations. During this stage God is known as Dabar YHWH, or Word Of God.
For more on this read our article on the Chaotic Set Theory.
In 1 Samuel 10:5 occurs גבעה האלהים; the Hill of Elohim, which merits our name's inclusion in our list of Biblical mountains.
🔼Etymology of the name Elohim
'Elohim' is a plural word, which is peculiar because God is one (Deuteronomy 6:4). Still, the singular form of the word Elohim is Eloah (אלה), and that form is used frequently in the Bible as well. In between these sits the construct form, that is: the plural form without the final ם (mem), or אלהי, Elohai, and indicative of a rudimentary genitive: 'Elohim of' or 'God of' or 'gods of'.
The etymology of both these terms is generally deemed uncertain but most likely they come from a root אלה ('lh), which probably had to do either with being strong or else with leading (perhaps not unlike the verb אול II, 'wl II):
In HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Professor of Old Testament at Covenant Theological Seminary, R. Laird Harris Ph.D. states, "Most frequently mentioned suggestions for an original meaning are "power" or "fear" but these are widely challenged and much disputed. It may be noted that even if the origin of the word in Canaanite or proto-Semitic is from a root meaning power, this by no means indicates the connotation in Hebrew religious usage. Our word "deity" comes from a root in Sanskrit to mean "sky" but we do not worship a sky-god".
The Abarim Publications Editorial Team feels compelled to reluctantly oppose professor Harris' point of view and subsequent logic. If the word El originates in a root that means power, the explicit loss of this meaning must be proven (and if proof fails the meaning stands). That the Judaic tradition supports the idea that the most rudimentary experience of God has to do with power is demonstrated by Luke 1:49, "For the Mighty One has done great things for me," and Matthew 26:64, "...you shall see the Son of Man sitting at the right of Power..".
Another piece of (circumstantial) evidence comes through the name Abi-albon, which may mean Father Of Strength. This man is called Abi-albon in 2 Samuel 23:31 but Abiel (El Is Father) in 1 Chronicles 11:32.
The particle אל occurs often in names, and in our attempts to translate, we should also take the following words in account:
It is impossible to combine all these words and seek for a fundamental meaning without beaching on the banks of triviality, but it must be noted that the general form of אל is much more common in Hebrew than our word "god" is in Germanic. It seems to be charged with a firmness and fixedness (oak, terebinth, these, oath) but also with the notion of separateness and disparateness (no/ not), as well as a rudimentary sense of the transfinite (unto, into).
In whichever way the Hebrews saw God, the names El and Elohim were far more rich in definite meaning than our abstract word "god". And whatever the etymology of either אל or אלה or אלהים, in the Bible these words are thoroughly intertwined.
Though certainly much debated, this Name (still most probably) has to do with the first God-experience that people had; awe or reverence for the powers of nature. In the Bible, this word is used for God Himself, but also so-called gods, the wooden or stone images people worshiped.
Elohim is even used to (probably) mean 'angels' and even 'judges'. For a list of occurrences where the word elohim does not mean God, see our article on the First Commandment.
Bottom line: the Name Elohim has something to do with powers: The Powers That Be; The Many Powered. To indicate the Living God this word can be accompanied by YHWH or any description like Elyon, or Shaddai.
Also note that the Hebrew name אל (El) transliterated into Greek forms Ηλ, which constitutes the first syllable of the word ηλιος, (helios), meaning sun and which originates in a very ancient proto Indo-European root.
See for a more elaborate discussion on the nature of God, our article on the Greek word θεος (theos).