Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The verb τυπτω (tupto) means to beat or strike, whether with one's fist of with some weapon. It stems from the same Proto-Indo-European root "(s)tewp-", to push or hit, from which Latin gets the verb stupeo, to be stopped or stunned, and hence English words like stub, stupefy, stupid, stump and stint.
Our verb is used 14 times in the New Testament, see full concordance, and from it derive:
- The noun τυπος (tupos), which literally means a beat, blow or strike, but which came to specifically denote any kind of stamped or imprinted impression — it's where our English words "type" and "typical" come from. Our noun τυπος (tupos) typically describes the instrument with which an impression is made, but by extension also the thing so impressed: a coin, a seal, but also the hollow mold of a cast statue, an engraving, and even any sort of figure or sculpture that imitates or replicates some original or living thing or archetype — also see the comparable noun εικον (eikon), or mass-produced "icon", and note that the verb γραφω (grapho), meaning to write, actually means to engrave.
In the classics, our word could also denote some general form, some rough draft or general outline or model, from which it came to denote a rule of thumb, a life style or religion. As a legal term, our noun would denote a summons or writ. In the New Testament, it's used 16 times; see full concordance, and from it in turn come:
- Together with the preposition αντι (anti), meaning over or against: the adjective αντιτυποσ (antitupos), "anti-type" or anti-blow as reciprocative of some original blow. This word would not merely describe a similar blow in the opposite direction, but much rather something receptive of the blow: an anvil to a striking hammer, an echo to a curse hurled into the night or light reflected off some shiny surface. This adjective could mean something as general as "corresponding" or "resembling" and take on the meaning of counterfeit or feigned. And it could emphasize some ability to withstand or repel an original blow, and assume the meaning of resilient, firm, resistant, and even stubborn or obstinate. It's used in Hebrews 9:24 and 1 Peter 3:21 only.
- Together with the common preposition εν (en), meaning in, on, at, by: the verb εντυποω (entupoo), to engrave, to impress (2 Corinthians 3:7 only).