🔼The name Aram-naharaim in the Bible
There is only once place with the name Aram-naharaim in the Bible (see the subtitle of Psalm 60:1). The Hebrew Bible mentions Aram-naharaim five times but most English translations follow the Septuagint and read Mesopotamia for the other four.
The wives of Isaac and Jacob came from Aram-naharaim (Genesis 24:10). The city of Pethor (where Balaam, or at least his father Beor, came from was in Aram-naharaim (Deuteronomy 23:4), although this may be another place called such (see our article on the name Pethor).
And when Cushan-rishathaim, the king of Aram-naharaim took sway over Israel and held it for eight years, YHWH raised up a savior: Othniel, the nephew of Caleb, who defeated Cushan-rishathaim and became the first judge of Israel (Judges 3:8). Much later, when the Ammonites insulted king David, they hired a regiment of cavalry from Aram-naharaim to fight him (1 Chronicles 19:6).
🔼Etymology of the name Aram-naharaim
The name Aram-naharaim obviously consists of two elements. The first part is the same as the name Aram, the Hebrew name for Syria, which derives of the verb רום (rum), meaning to rise up, or to be high:
The second part of our name is a dual form of a noun that comes from the verb נהר I (nahar I), meaning to flow or stream:
The Septuagint translates the name Aram-naharaim with Mesopotamia (which is mesos + potamos, meaning Between Rivers), and that's what the Hebrew name means: Aram Of Two Rivers, or Height Of Two Rivers. NOBSE Study Bible Name List omits this name but Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Syria Of The Two Rivers.