Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The familiar adjective πολυς (polus), means much or many (Matthew 8:16, Mark 5:24, Luke 7:21, John 6:2), or great or intense (Matthew 2:18, John 7:12, Acts 15:7), and is the source of the many "poly-" words in English.
Our word often used to describe many people; the Anglicized phrase "hoi polloi", meaning the masses or the rabble, is directly adopted from Greek (Romans 5:15). And this appears to suggest relations between our word πολυς (polus) and the evenly familiar noun πολις (polis), meaning city.
This adjective is used 365 times in the New Testament, see full concordance, and from it derive:
- Together with the adjective πας (pas), meaning all or whole: the adjective παμπολυς (pampolus), meaning very much, vast (Mark 8:1 only)
- Together with the suffix -κις (-kis), which denotes frequent occurrence: the adverb πολλακις (pollakis), meaning often or many times. This adverb occurs 18 times; see full concordance.
- The adjective πολλαπλασιον (pollaplasion), meaning many times more (Luke 18:30 only).
- Together with the noun λογος (logos), meaning word: the noun πολυλογια (polulogia), denoting the use of many words, long-windedness (Matthew 6:7 only)
- Together with the noun μερος (meros), meaning a part or side: the adverb πολυμερος (polumeros; hence our English word "polymer"), meaning of many parts or many angles (Hebrews 1:1 only).
- Together with the adjective ποικιλος (poikilos), meaning varied: the adjective πολυποικιλος (polupoikilos), meaning greatly varied (Ephesians 3:10 only).
- Together with the noun σπλαγχνον (splagchnon), meaning (upper) intestines and figuratively the heart and emotions: the adjective πολυσπλαγχνος (polusplagchnos), or big-heartedness: very compassionate (James 5:11 only).
- Together with τελος (telos), meaning end or completion, or in this case, cost: the adjective πολυτελης (poluteles), meaning very costly (Mark 14:3, 1 Timothy 2:9, 1 Peter 3:4 only).
- Together with the noun τιμη (time), meaning worth or dearness: the adjective πολυτιμος (polutimos) meaning of great honor or price; very valuable (Matthew 13:46 and John 12:3 only).
- Together with the noun τροπος (tropos), meaning manner, way or mode: the adverb πολυτροπως (polutropos), meaning in many ways or polymodal (Hebrews 1:1 only).
The adjective πλειων (pleion), also spelled πλειον (pleion) and πλεον (pleon), is the comparative of πολυς (polus; see above) and means more. It is used pretty much in the same way as the English word "more" and occurs 56 times; see full concordance.
Note the similarity with the verb πλεω (pleo), meaning to sail, which shares its root with the Latin pleo (hence our word "plenty"), which means to fill (which is what one does with ships). It's also the source of the name Pleiades, or the constellation of the Seven Sisters (see Exodus 2:16 and Isaiah 4:1).
It comes with the following derivations:
- The verb πλεοναζω (pleonazo), meaning to have more, to have surplus, to abound. This verb is the source of our English word "pleonasm". It occurs in the New Testament 9 times, see full concordance, and from it in turn derives:
- Together with the verb εχω (echo), meaning to have: the verb πλεονεκτεω (pleonekteo), literally to more-have; to covet or to harvest the resources of someone else out of sheer greed, to take advantage of. This verb occurs 5 times, see full concordance, and from it comes:
- The noun πλεονεκτης (pleonektes), denoting a covetous person, an advantage taker. This noun is used 4 times; see full concordance.
- Closely related to the previous and consisting of the same elements: the noun πλεονεξια (pleonexia), meaning covetousness or greediness. This noun occurs 10 times; see full concordance.