Abarim Publications' online Biblical Greek Dictionary
The noun τιμη (time), meaning honor, comes from the verb τιω (tio), meaning to honor or revere. It's a verb that's used in all the expected ways (but curiously absent from the New Testament). When this verb or its derivatives are applied to inanimate items, it's usually means that these items are of high prize or valuable. When this verb is used as a legal term it means to estimate the amount of punishment due to the criminals, or award the penalty.
The noun τιμη (time), being such a pivotal word, its ubiquitous in the New Testament: meaning honor and respect rendered a person (John 4:44, Romans 12:10), a state of honor (Hebrews 2:7, Revelations 21:24), a "mark" or deliberate show of respect (Acts 28:10), compensation, most likely in the form of tangibles (1 Timothy 5:17), or price (of blood - Matthew 27:6; of the one pierced, v9).
This noun's derivatives are:
- The verb τιμαω (timao), meaning to esteem or honor (Matthew 15:4, 1 Timothy 5:3, John 12:26), or to prize or price (to render a fixed value upon something: Matthew 27:9).
- The adjective τιμιος (timios), meaning respected or honored (Acts 5:34, Hebrews 13:4), or costly (1 Corinthians 3:12, Revelation 17:4), or dear (Acts 20:24, James 5:7).
- The noun τιμιοτης (timiotes), meaning esteemed (things) or more general: wealth (Revelation 18:19).
Compound derivations used in the Bible:
- The adjective ατιμος (atimos) is formed from the particle of negation α (a), meaning without, and the noun τιμη (time), meaning honor. It means dishonored or without honor (Matthew 13:57), or of low character or reputation (Mark 6:4, 1 Corinthians 4:10). Its derivatives are:
- The verb ατιμαζω (atimazo), meaning to dishonor (Luke 20:11), to abuse (John 8:49, Acts 5:41).
- The noun ατιμια (atimia), meaning dishonor or disgrace (Romans 1:26, 2 Chronicles 6:8).
- The verb ατιμοω (atimoo), meaning to dishonor (Mark 12:4).
- The noun βαρυτιμος (barutimos) is a compound of (1) the adjective βαρυς (barus), meaning heavy or burdensome, and (2) the noun τιμη (time), meaning honor. Our noun means of great price, very valuable or precious (Matthew 26:7).
- The noun εντιμος (entimos) is a compound of (1) εν (en), a particle that governs the dative and thus means in, on, at etcetera, and (2) the noun τιμη (time), meaning honor. It literally means "within honor" or "belongs among honorable things." In English translations this word is usually rendered simply honored or dear (Luke 7:2, Philippians 2:29).
- The adjective ισοτιμος (isotimos) is constructed from (1) the adjective ισος (isos), meaning alike or equal, and (2) our noun τιμη (time), meaning honor. It means of equal honor or equal value (2 Peter 1:1).
- The adjective πολυτιμος (polutimos) consists of (1) the adjective πολυς (polus), meaning much, many or great, and (2) the noun τιμη (time), meaning honor. It means of great honor or price; very valuable (Matthew 13:46, John 12:3).
- The verb τιμωρεω (timereo) is constructed from (1) our noun τιμη (time), meaning honor, and (2) the verb οραω (horao), meaning to see. It literally means watching one's honor but it is used in the sense of to revenge one's honor or vindicate one's honor (Acts 22:5, Acts 26:11).
A wonderful extra-biblical word is the Platonic noun τιμοκρατια (timocratia), denoting "a state in which the love of honor is the ruling principle" (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon).